INTRODUCTION

REPUBLICANISM

PARAKLETOS.dk is a philosophical exegesis of the Holy Spirit within the structure of Kant's critique of the dialectical illusion of pure reason.

Within the structure of Kant's critique of the dialectical illusion of pure reason, the Holy Spirit is the constituent power given by God.

Every secular republic (respublica phaenomenon) - that incorporates and upholds the constituent power given by God - manifests the ideal republic (respublica noumenon).

The manifestation of the ideal republic is the house of truth in the garden of truth.

The Greek word παράκλητος/paraklētos is another word for the Holy Spirit. (Jn 14:26)

The Holy Spirit is the spirit of truth. (Jn 14:15-17) (Jn 15:26) (Jn 16:13)

Immanuel Kant writes:

"The Bible contains within itself a credential of its (moral) divinity that is sufficient in a practical respect - the influence that, as the text of a systematic doctrine of faith, it has always exercised on the hearts of human beings, both in catechetical instruction and in preaching. This is sufficient reason for preserving it, not only as the organ of universal inner rational religion, but also as the legacy (new testament) of a statutory doctrine of faith which will serve us indefinitely as a guiding line." (Text)/(AA VII:64)

Reason

The human race (Homo sapiens) lives both under nature and under freedom.

No human being can make and/or abolish the law of nature. Every human being can make and/or abolish hypotheses and theories about the law of nature, but no human being can make and/or abolish the law of nature.

Every human being has the ability to make and/or abolish the law. Every human being can take the law into their own hands.

If a human being is denied the ability to make and/or abolish the law, that human being can choose to fight and possibly die as criminal.

Because every human being has the ability to make and/or abolish the law, the human race lives in a state of war.

Kant writes:

"Just as the juridical state of nature is a state of war of every human being against every other, so too is the ethical state of nature one in which the good principle, which resides in each human being, is incessantly attacked by the evil which is found in him and in every other as well." (Text)/(AA VI:96)

How can the human race (Homo sapiens) forsake the state of war and live in peace?

Reason alone cannot bring peace. That's why Kant writes:

"I therefore had to annul knowledge in order to make room for faith." (Text)/(AA BXXX)

The answer to the question is not either reason or religion. By making room for faith, Kant does not deny that the human race lives both under nature and under freedom. Kant just denies that reason without religion can bring peace, just as he denies that religion without reason can bring peace. The answer to the question is both reason and religion.

Religion

A person can be different characters.

Citizen and human being are different characters.

Kant writes:

"However, that someone should become a human being who is not merely legally but morally good (pleasing to God), i.e., virtuous in terms of intelligible character - who, when he cognizes something as a duty, requires no other incentive beyond this presentation of duty itself - this cannot be brought about, so long as the foundation of the maxims remains impure, through gradual reform, but must be brought about through a revolution in the attitude in the human being (a transition to the maxim of the attitude's holiness); and he can become a new human being only through a kind of rebirth." (Text)/(AA VI:47)

If a person violates the law, the sinner is the character human being and not the character citizen.

The character citizen is not able to sin. Only the character human being is able to sin.

The character human being has been sinning from the beginning (Gn 3:6).

The Bible says:

"The one who practices sin is of the devil, because the devil has been sinning from the beginning. For this reason the Son of God was revealed: in order to destroy the works of the devil. Everyone who is fathered by God does not practice sin, because his seed resides in him, and he is not able to sin, because he has been fathered by God." (1 Jn 3:8-9)

The character human being has a free will and can choose either a legal behaviour or an illegal behaviour.

The character citizen cannot choose an illegal behaviour.

The character citizen has a categorical duty to follow the law, but at the same time, the character citizen possesses a power over the law.

Kant writes:

"The idea of a constitution in harmony with the natural right of human beings, one namely in which the citizens obedient to the law, besides being united, ought also to be legislative, lies at the basis of all political forms; and the body politic, which, conceived in conformity to it by virtue of pure concepts of reason, signifies a Platonic ideal (respublica noumenon), is not an empty figment of the brain, but rather the eternal norm for all civil organization in general, and averts all war. A civil society organized conformably to this ideal is the representation of it in agreement with the laws of freedom by means of an example in our experience (respublica phaenomenon) and can be acquired only painfully, after multifarious hostilities and wars; but its constitution, once won on a large scale, is qualified as the best among all others to banish war, the destroyer of everything good." (Text)/(AA VII:90)

The character citizen has been fathered by God and has by God been given the highest power to make and/or abolish the law.

The formation of the character citizen is a process from rebirth to constituent power.

Formation

Formation

The formation of the citizen is a process in three phases:

Within the first phase [minimum] the citizen has not developed school readiness. Within the second phase [medium] the citizen has developed school readiness. Within the third phase [maximum] the citizen is a possessor of the constituent power.

Everyone begins the process of formation within the first phase [minimum].

Not everyone passes from the first phase [minimum] to the second phase [medium]. A small percentage of the population do not develop school readiness and therefore remain within the first phase [minimum].

Only children with severe mental retardation do not develop school readiness.

Responsibility for development of school readiness is included in parental responsibility.

Rebirth

No one is born as a citizen. Everyone is reborn as a citizen after the birth.

Kant writes:

"The one-time solemn initiation into the church-community, i.e. the first reception of a member into a church (in the Christian church through baptism), is a solemnity rich in meaning .. ; it has something holy for its end (the formation of a human being as a citizen in a divine state)." (Text)/(AA VI:199)

Age of majority

For those citizens who pass from the first phase [minimum] to the second phase [medium], the process of formation is completed automatically when the citizen reaches the age of majority and because of the age automatically passes from the second phase [medium] to the third phase [maximum].

The age of the citizen is reckoned from the date of birth, which is registered by the midwife, where the birth takes place.

Within the first phase [minimum] and the second phase [medium], every citizen is under parental responsibility. Within the third phase [maximum], no citizen is under parental responsibility.

The age of majority is the cessation of parental responsibility, but the age of majority is more than just the cessation of parental responsibility.

Within the structure of Kant's critique of the dialectical illusion of pure reason, the age of majority is also an authorization, where the citizen becomes a possessor of the constituent power.

The age of majority is a matter of national sovereignty.

Constituent power

The constituent power is the highest power and the active members of the nation possess the highest power.

No one becomes a possessor of the constituent power without both a registered date of birth and a registered nationality.

The authority of the constituent power emanates neither from a solemn declaration, nor from a positive constitution.

Kant writes:

"One can .. conceive of external lawgiving that would contain only positive laws; but then a natural law would still have to precede it, which would establish the authority of the lawgiver (i.e., his authorization to bind others by his mere choice)." (Text)/(AA VI:224)

Within the structure of Kant's critique of the dialectical illusion of pure reason, the constituent power is given by God.

Jn 20:21-23

The Holy Spirit is given by God once and for all in the evening on the day Jesus rose from the dead.

The Gospel of John says:

"So Jesus said to them again, “Peace to you. As the Father has sent me, I also send you.” And when he had said this, he breathed on them and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven them. If you retain the sins of any, they are retained.”" (Jn 20:21-23)

During the Reformation, the exegesis of Jn 20:21-23 was a divisive factor between Martin Luther and the pope.

Martin Luther writes:

"Here [Jn 20:21-23] you can see that his object is to deliver the people from sin, or to permit them to remain in sin, and show that they are condemned. Certainly, we cannot say that he has thereby founded a worldly kingdom, as the pope boasts of his power of the keys, that he has the power to loosen and to bind even that which is not sin, yea, even that which Christ neither binds nor loosens, thereby making of it a worldly power. But Christ shows clearly enough here what his keys are, namely, they are not to make laws and abolish them again, as the pope is doing, but to remit or retain sin." (Text)/(WA 49:144)

According to Luther, the Holy Spirit is not a power to make and/or abolish the law. According to Luther, the Holy Spirit is something else than a power to make and/or abolish the law.

According to the pope, Jesus gave the power of the keys to Peter the Apostle and Peter the Apostle gave the power of the keys to the bishop of Rome. As Liber Pontificalis says:

"He [Peter the Apostle] consecrated St Clement as bishop and entrusted the cathedra and the whole management of the church to him, saying: »As the power of government, that of binding and loosing, was handed to me by my Lord Jesus Christ, so I entrust it to you; ordain those who are to deal with various cases and execute the church’s affairs.«" (Text)/(Latin)

According to the pope, the bishop of Rome is the supreme possessor of the power of the keys and the power of the keys is also the highest power to make and/or abolish the law.

Within the structure of Kant's critique of the dialectical illusion of pure reason, the Holy Spirit is the highest power to make and/or abolish the law.

Exegesis

The power to forgive/retain sin (Jn 20:23) is the same power as the power of the keys (Mt 16:19) and that power is the highest power we call the constituent power.

Sin is doing something that is not allowed.

The pope is not the supreme possessor of the constituent power.

Every citizen who develops school readiness becomes a possessor of the constituent power and in the constituent power every citizen is equal.

This exegesis is in agreement with the following principle by Kant:

"And so, when conflict arises about the sense of a scriptural text, philosophy - that is, the lower faculty, which has truth as its end - claims the prerogative of deciding its meaning." (Text)/(AA VII:38)